Modification of white adipose tissue biolofy and metabolic profiles in humans by nutritional bio-actives

The well-balanced interplay of lipid storage and release (lipolysis) in human adipose tissue (AT) secures energy homeostasis in times of a nutrient surplus or food shortage, respectively. More recently, the constant technological progress led to a continuous availability of cheap, processed energy-dense foods and a dramatic reduction of physical activity. Their concomitant negative effects are the increasing accumulation of body fat causing obesity, which elevates the risk for various non-communicable diseases e.g., type-2-diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular diseases, and several forms of cancer. Promoting life-style changes is the first defence line against increased body fat and metabolic dysfunctions such as insulin resistance, ectopic fat accumulation and chronic low-grade inflammation. However, apparently this approach cannot be effectively implemented and maintained in all individuals as shown by the on-going
obesity epidemic. Therefore, further non-invasive strategies need to be explored that contribute to the reversal or prevention of these metabolic impairments and promote weight loss. This explains the numerous studies in recent decades on cellular and molecular processes underlying fat metabolism and on effects of nutrients on adipocyte functions (Chapter 1). In this thesis, we investigated the effects of nutritional bio-actives like trans-resveratrol (Res), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (all-E)-lycopene (Lyc), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on adipocyte functions and metabolic profiles of overweight-obese humans. 

Ines Warnke, March 16th 2018