Distinct metabolic phenotypes towards cardiometabolic diseases

implications for precision nutrition strategies

Blood sugar levels are often disturbed in overweight and obesity as a result of resistance to the hormone insulin, which is an important risk factor for the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Interestingly, resistance to insulin can develop simultaneously in different organs but can also develop predominantly in either the liver or muscle. The research in this thesis shows clear differences in circulating immune cells (monocytes) and body composition in these tissue-specific insulin resistant individuals. Furthermore, in this research, 242 individuals with overweight or obesity and predominant liver, or muscle, insulin resistance followed one of two healthy diets differing in de composition of macronutrients. Individuals with liver insulin resistance benefited most from a diet high in unsaturated, healthy, fats, including olive products. Individuals with muscle insulin resistance benefited most from a diet low in fat, but high in protein and fiber, including dairy and whole-grain products. The research provides, for the first time, the proof-of-concept that precision nutrition based on metabolic phenotype can induce pronounced, clinically relevant improvements in cardiometabolic health, independent of changes in body weight. 

Inez Trouwborst, February 2nd 2023